• Mutual Aid : A Factor of Evolution - Peter Kropotkin, Iain McKay & Donald Rooum

Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution is Kropotkin’s most influential work. A challenge to classical Darwinism, Kropotkin argues that in nature, co-operation is as important as competition.

This new edition includes an introduction by Donald Rooum and historical preface by Iain McKay.

“Kropotkin … has adduced a large and interesting body of facts, showing the great prevalence of the principle of co-oper­ation in organic nature … [A]ll cases of mutual aid or co-operation, whether within or beyond the limits of species, are cases which fall under the sweep of Darwin’s theory.” George John Romanes (1892)

“Mutual Aid will never be more out of date than will the Declaration of Independence. New facts may increasingly become available, but we can already see that they will serve to support Kropotkin’s conclusion that ‘in the ethical progress of man, mutual support – not mutual struggle – has had the leading part’.” Ashley Montague

“Kropotkin … was one of the first systematic students of animal communities, and may be regarded as the founder of modern social ecology.” Alex Comfort

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Mutual Aid : A Factor of Evolution - Peter Kropotkin, Iain McKay & Donald Rooum

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